Cryptocurrency: EU ati Awọn ibeere ofin Ofin Dutch ti Imọ-ẹrọ Iyika

ifihan

Idagba kariaye ati jijẹ olokiki ti cryptocurrency ti yori si awọn ibeere nipa awọn apakan ilana ti lasan tuntun ti owo yii. Awọn owo nina foju jẹ ti iyasọtọ oni nọmba ati ṣeto nipasẹ nẹtiwọki ti a mọ bi blockchain, eyiti o jẹ adari ori ayelujara kan eyiti o tọju igbasilẹ to ni aabo ti iṣowo kọọkan ni gbogbo aye kan. Ko si ẹnikan ti o ṣakoso blockchain, nitori awọn ẹwọn wọnyi ni ainiri kọja gbogbo kọnputa ti o ni apamọwọ Bitcoin. Eyi tumọ si pe ko si ile-ẹkọ kan ti n ṣakoso nẹtiwọọki, eyiti o tọka si aye ti ọpọlọpọ awọn ewu owo ati ofin.

Blockchain startups have embraced Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) as a way to raise early capital. An ICO is an offering whereby a company can sell digital tokens to the public in order to fund operations and meet other business objectives.[1] Also ICOs are not governed by specific regulations or government agencies. This lack of regulation has raised concern about the potential risks investors run. As a result, volatility has become a concern. Unfortunately, if an investor loses funds during this process, they have no standardized course of action to recover the lost money.

Iṣowo Cryptocurrency - EU ati Awọn ibeere ofin ti Dutch ti Imọ-ẹrọ Iyika

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Awọn owo abinibi ni Ipele Yuroopu

Awọn ewu ti o ni nkan ṣe pẹlu lilo owo foju owo gbe iwulo ti European Union ati awọn ile-iṣẹ rẹ lati fiofinsi. Sibẹsibẹ, ilana ni ipele European Union jẹ ohun ti o niraju pupọ, nitori awọn ipilẹ EU ilana iyipada ati awọn aibikita ilana kọja awọn orilẹ-ede ọmọ ẹgbẹ.

Bi fun awọn owo nina bayi ko ṣe ofin ni ipele EU ati pe wọn ko ni abojuto tabi ṣe abojuto ni pẹkipẹki nipasẹ aṣẹ gbogbogbo EU, botilẹjẹpe ikopa ninu awọn ero wọnyi ṣafihan awọn olumulo si kirẹditi, oloomi, awọn iṣẹ ṣiṣe ati awọn ewu ofin. Eyi tumọ si awọn alase ti orilẹ-ede nilo lati ronu boya wọn pinnu lati gba tabi ṣe ilana ati ṣe ilana cryptocurrency.

Awọn owo nina ti Ilu Fiorino

According to the Dutch Financial Supervision Act (FSA) electronic money represents a monetary value that is stored electronically or magnetically. This monetary value is intended to be used to perform payment transactions and can be used to make payments to other parties than the one that issued the electronic money.[2] Virtual currencies cannot be defined as electronic money, because not all legal criteria are met. If cryptocurrency cannot be legally defined as money or electronic money, as what can it be defined? In the context of the Dutch Financial Supervision Act cryptocurrency is just a medium of exchange. Everyone has the freedom to engage in barter trade, therefore permission in the form of a license is not required. The Minister of Finance indicated that the revision of the formal legal definition of electronic money is not yet desirable, given the bitcoin’s limited scope, relatively low level of acceptance, and limited relationship to the real economy. He emphasized that the consumer is solely responsible for their use.[3]

According to the Dutch District Court (Overijssel) and the Dutch Minister of Finance a virtual currency, such as Bitcoin, has the status of a medium of exchange.[4] In appeal the Dutch Court considered that bitcoins can be qualified as sold objects as referred to in article 7:36 DCC. The Dutch Court of Appeal also stated that bitcoins cannot be qualified as legal tender but only as a medium of exchange. In contrast, the European Court of Justice ruled that bitcoins should be treated as a means of payment, indirectly suggesting bitcoins are similar to legal tender.[5]

ipari

Nitori ilolu eyiti o kan ilana ti awọn cryptocurrencies, o le ṣe ipinnu pe Ile-ẹjọ ti Idajọ ti EU yoo ni lati kopa ninu ṣiṣe alaye itumọ. Ni ọran ti Awọn ipinlẹ Ẹgbẹ ti o ti yan lati mu iwọn-ọrọ paarọ yatọ si ti ofin EU, awọn iṣoro le dide ni asopọ pẹlu itumọ ni ila pẹlu ofin EU. Lati irisi yii, o jẹ dandan lati ṣeduro si Awọn ọmọ ẹgbẹ Ọmọ ẹgbẹ pe wọn tẹle iwe-aṣẹ ofin EU lakoko ti o ṣe imuse ofin sinu ofin orilẹ-ede.

Ẹya pipe ti iwe funfun yii wa nipasẹ ọna asopọ yii.

olubasọrọ

Ti o ba ni awọn ibeere tabi awọn asọye lẹhin kika nkan yii, jọwọ ni ọfẹ lati kan si mr. Maxim Hodak, agbẹjọro ni Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More nipasẹ tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, tabi pe +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: What’s the Difference?, Bitcoin Market Journal september 2017.

[2] The Financial Supervision Act, section 1:1

[3] Ministerie van Ni akọkọ, Beantwoording van kamervragen over het gebruik van en toezicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, december 2013.

[4] ECLI:NL:RBOVE:2014:2667.

[5] ECLI:EU:C:2015:718.

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